The leader’s work has many attractive sides: it provides great opportunities for personal development, gives dignity to a person, is exciting and fascinating. The manager often has to solve complex problems in critical situations and uncertain prospects.
In the past, they tried to select people with pronounced dictatorial manners as managers, since workers were mostly submissive, poorly educated, faceless, and the best way to deal with them was considered coercion.
Under these conditions, the manager’s actions formula was: “business is business, work without reasoning.”
With the understanding that workers should not be forced to work, but encouraged, the requirements for managers have changed too. Their main advantage was the ability to play the role of the head of the family, who treats subordinates in a fatherly way, acting according to the formula: “firmness, but justice” .
All this, of course, helped to remove many problems, and above all the antagonism between workers and managers.
Crisis situations, shaking the Western economy more and more, demanded new qualities from managers. Just getting along with people was not enough – the interaction needed to be provided with a reliable material base, which was created by a reliable uninterrupted sale of goods. This required the manager also brokerage abilities.
And finally, today firms have grown so much that sole management of them has become virtually impossible. In addition, the leaders added many external functions, including interaction with partners, the trade union, government and political figures. Each direction was dealt with by an independent manager, so the head of the corporation became the organizing manager, whose main responsibility was to coordinate the activities of the group of managers.
Fulfilling this duty, a modern manager acts in several ways.
- Firstly, it is a manager, endowed with power, leading a large team of people.
- Secondly, it is a leader who is able to lead subordinates, using his authority, high professionalism, positive emotions.
- Thirdly, it is a diplomat, establishing contacts with partners and authorities, successfully overcoming internal and external conflicts.
- Fourth, this is a teacher with high moral qualities, able to create a team and direct its development in the right direction.
- Fifthly, it is an innovator who understands the role of science in modern conditions, who is able to evaluate and immediately introduce a particular invention or rationalization proposal into production.
- Sixthly, this is just a person with high knowledge and abilities, a level of culture, honesty, determination of character and at the same time prudence, capable of being a model for everyone in every respect.
In the management process, the manager carries out a number of specific functions, among which: organization and planning of the team and its own work; distribution of tasks and briefing subordinates; control over them; preparation and reading of reports; verification and evaluation of work results; familiarization with all the latest in the world of business, engineering and technology, promotion and consideration of new ideas and proposals; solving issues that go beyond the competence of subordinates; acquaintance with current correspondence; answering calls and receiving visitors; holding meetings and representation; filling out reporting forms; Negotiation; training.
All these works are characterized by: a high variety (up to 200 types of actions per day), a variety of forms of these actions themselves and the place of their implementation, wide contacts and communications inside and outside the company, a quick change of events, people and actions.
Performing his daily duties, the manager communicates with various categories of people. First of all, these are partners. Sometimes they can be very unpleasant, putting forth awkward demands and even threatening, but in any case, they must be handled correctly, without showing irritation.
Another category of people to communicate with is leaders of various ranks. In conversations with them, one should express oneself clearly and unambiguously, adhere only to facts or one’s own considerations, and summarize thoughts. When posing a problem, it is best to immediately propose a solution to it, so that the boss does not deal with it from beginning to end. In general, it is best to take up most of his work – he will not forget this.
Communication with subordinates should be highly trusting and friendly – as is known, the fate of the manager depends to a decisive degree on them. And finally, the manager constantly communicates with colleagues – heads of other departments. He cannot have a direct influence on them, and here, in a special measure, one must be able to negotiate, bargain and convince.
In the process of communication, the manager has to fulfill three main roles.
Firstly, it is the role of a coordinator connecting one group of people with another and simplifying the dialogue between them. This role is the image and representation in the outside world; the actual may play the nominal head of the company, ensuring its inspirational actions of people aimed at the leader, achieving the goals of the company; communicator, creating the possibility of reliable continuous contacts between employees.
Secondly, this is the role of an informant, providing reception, transmission and processing of various kinds of information. This role can be played by the controller, monitoring the work of subordinates, comparing it with the goals set. It can be taken over by the distributor of ideas, who is aware of all the changes affecting the work of employees, informing them of this, explaining the policy of the company. This is also a representative explaining the significance and nature of the problems to other units or partners.
Thirdly, this is a decision-making role. It is played by an entrepreneur looking for new ways to achieve goals and taking full responsibility for the risk associated with them. It is played by the manager responsible for the distribution of the company’s resources. She is finally played by a representative of the company, negotiating with partners.
Top managers of the company are usually nominee heads, coordinators, representatives, determine the goals and basic principles of activity. Mid-level managers most often act as generators of ideas, representatives in negotiations, coordinators of the activities of their subordinates, determining their functional responsibilities and goals that improve the production process.
The lower managers – the masters – are closer to the direct performers. Goals for them are formed in the near future by direct managers and are focused on increasing labor productivity, the qualifications of individual workers, reducing marriage. Unlike the previous categories of managers, they decide not “What to do?”, But “How to”?
According to their attitude to work, managers are divided into passive and active. Passive use, as a rule, the principles of activity developed by others, are closed mainly on their subordinates, trying to control all their actions. In everyday work, such managers are limited to solving narrow problems, moreover from a routine position. They are taken only for what serves the benefit of their career and allows them to “score points”, and here, fearing risk, they act only according to the “so that for sure” scheme, they do not try to broaden their horizons, and the lack of knowledge and ideas replenishes them with theft with your subordinates.
In contrast to the passive leader, the active type does not sit still, strives for tests, completely devotes himself to work. He has clear attitudes, is demanding of himself and others, strives for perfection. Such a leader is constantly in the midst of life, continuously develops and revises, in accordance with the situation, the principles of activity for himself and for others. He seeks to constructively use any, even conflict, situations, without fear of risk and responsibility.
An active manager seeks and establishes urgent contacts with others, encourages their independence, and makes it possible to advance. Active. A manager has all the necessary makings in order to become a team leader, combining official recognition of management and unofficial subordinates. Surrounding, according to psychologists, perceive the leader in four main models:
- “One of us”,
- “The best of us is a role model”;
- “The embodiment of virtues”;
- “Justification of all expectations”, in accordance with which they build their attitude towards it, allow the leader to extend his influence to the team and each individual.
Leadership is the art of influencing people, inspiring them to voluntarily strive to achieve certain goals. Very often, unfortunately, especially in politics, it turns out to be the personal ambitious goals of the leader himself.
People follow the leader, first of all, because he is able to offer them (although it is not always realistic to give) the means to meet their most important needs, to indicate the desired direction of activity.
The leader’s power is based on good knowledge of his subordinates, the ability to put himself in their place, analyze the situation, determine the immediate and long-term consequences of his actions, the desire for self-improvement, the ability to instill confidence in the subordinates, the awareness of the need to perform certain actions, because the behavior of employees most often reflects what is expected of them.
The leader perfectly feels and understands the psychological characteristics of partners, opponents, bosses, skillfully uses them in official and unofficial contacts. By convincing others, he shows enviable flexibility and the ability to compromise.
But the true source of the leader’s power over people is his independence, his willingness to free up his place at any time, since the expression of the interests of the collective does not at all mean obedience to him.