Introduction Of Education And Citizenship Education Essay

Education serves as a way to bring about the desired and deserving change in society, to develop a new generation of admirable individuals and thus cause the growth of good people and efficient people.

The fundamental purposes of education are to gain knowledge to inculcate the forms of proper conduct and to acquire practical competency. Therefore, the basic and universal aim of Education is to relocate excellent methods into the youngsters in such a way that they consciously adopt good habits and choices do away and reject the bad ones. Hence, Education played a crucial role in focused efforts to build and mold a nation, not only economically, but also culturally and psychologically (Chua & Kuo, 1991).

In every state, Education for youths encourages the individuals to aware about civic, political moral dimensions of citizenship in them. Education motivates the youths to come ahead to perform for community. It instills in them a sensation that they are part of the community and that it is their liability to generate it on the righteous direction. In every state, the most important goal of education is preparation of young people for their role as good citizens. The researcher believes that, Information for citizenship provides adolescents with the knowledge, abilities and knowing to play an effective part in public life. Citizenship motivates them to take an interest in typical and controversial issues and to get engage in discussion and debates. It means that the pupils must learn about their rights, responsibilities, duties and freedom and about laws, justice and they must know democracy. They must understand to take aspect in decision-making and different types of activity because they have to play an active role in their school life, neighborhoods, areas and broader community as dynamic and global people.

The researcher wants to explore the current status of society and Social institutions like family, school and curriculum at large have failed to develop above mentioned qualities among its citizens (SAARC Journal of Human Resource Development, 2005). As a matter of fact, a critical aspect of education that is often overlooked or inadequately addressed is the preparation of young school students for citizenship. Citizenship education is a broad curriculum and is more than a subject. If it is taught well and developed according to local and national needs. It can develop the awareness of rights and responsibilities skills and values which can enhance democratic social life. According to Crick report (1999) citizenship education is becoming a cornerstone subject in our education system, and rightly so (National Curriculum Citizenship, 1999).

This cited study has defined a good citizenship as Huddleston (2005) stated that the significance of excellent citizenship knowledge from a beginning age is very essential. If kids become familiar to talk about their variations in a logical way in the main years, they are more likely to agree to it as regular exercise in their puberty. Citizenship knowledge allows providing adolescents to deal with circumstances of conflict and to discussion knowledgeably and impatiently. It allows them to understand the repercussions of their activities, and those of the grownups around them. Students learn how to identify prejudice, assess discussion, think about proof, look for substitute understanding, opinions and resources of proof and above all to give explanations for the things they say and do, and to anticipate explanations to be given by other ( Huddleston, T. , 2005)

It is accepted that Citizenship education is one of the basic essentials in the curriculum of social studies. As a matter of fact, in high school level especially at the young age keen attention needs to be paid. Hence, in this area, at elementary and high school level, it should be not only be included but and should also be handled seriously. Unfortunately, in our educational system, especially in curriculum of schools, with reference to social studies special attention is not paid to teaching of citizenship education (Gholtash, 2010).

The researcher refers to the explanation of citizenship education given by Kerr,(1999) . The term ‘citizenship education’ is used deliberately in the place of the term, Civics Education which deals with citizens’ role in a society. The researcher premise is based on the fact that in every state the major goal of education is to prepare young people for their role as citizens. However a critical aspect of education that is often overlooked or inadequately addressed is the preparation of school students for citizenship. Moreover the researcher’s assumption is that Citizenship education remains at a relatively low concern in knowledge systems around the world. This is somewhat ironical, which has given sense of crisis in the field. There are no exams in civics as an excellent subject; and therefore it gets much less interest than those topics which are analyzed (Kerr, D., 1999).

The present study explores that Citizenship education is a broad curriculum and it is more than a subject. It should not be treated as a topic, and not integrated with any other subject. If it is taught well and developed according to local and global needs, its skills and values will enhance democratic social life for all of us, we will have a better understanding of our rights and responsibilities, if awareness begins in schools.

In the present study the area of citizenship education is covered by a wide range of terms comprising many subjects. These terms include citizenship, civics, social sciences, social studies, world studies, society, and studies of society, life skills and moral education. The area also has links to curriculum subjects and options, including history, geography, economics, law, politics, environmental studies, values education, religious studies, languages and science.

The citizenship education was previously termed “civic training and later it become civic education “Citizenship Education” does not exist as an independent subjects like social studies, Islamiat ( religious study ) and Pakistan studies have limited segments of civic or citizenship education. The national education policy (1998-2010) in Pakistan does not explicitly contain civic sensibility education objectives (Hussain, S.2007)

In the above scenario, the researcher has examined and analyzed the curriculum of social studies of 8th grade in Pakistan. In Pakistani national school system, citizenship education is imparted through prescribed social studies curriculum, its main thrust is Islamization of society since 1980s (Gillani, 2004)

This present study will suggest that family, a school and its curriculum is the major institution from where children can develop civic qualities. In Pakistan, citizenship education is integrated with social studies. The aims, concepts, content, activities, learning outcomes and evaluation are provided in the national curriculum for social studies. The researcher is of the view that not only formal place should be given to citizenship education, but also a clear framework should be given. For this study four components of citizenship education are considered very important. This study is based on four areas:

Citizen and civic Sensibility

Political awareness and functional political literacy

Cultural moral and social development

Socio-economic development ( Castles ,S . 2000)

Background of the study

It is universally accepted that birth may make us citizens by law of any country but in practice. However, competent and responsible and active citizens are created through education in school, in the family, and in the larger community. (Winter, 2001) Short et al through this empiral research Theiss -Morse, 1993; Conover, Crewe & Searing, 1991; Ichilov & Nave, 1981; Carrington & Short, 2000) have said that these are different conceptions within and between different countries citizenship. Furthermore, another study conducted by Dean (2003) in Pakistan, Pakistanis has four conceptions of citizenship. They think of citizenship in terms of

Being born in Pakistan and

Sharing a common culture

Being patriotic

Sharing a common religious identity and

As someone who has to fulfil duties.

Schools play a critical role in the development of academic abilities of young people. Schools also serve as places that assist students in developing an understanding of society and commitment to political and civic engagement. In this role, schools can help to foster the knowledge, skills and dispositions that young people need to develop into politically aware and socially responsible individuals (Torney-Purta & Vermeer, 2004). “A curriculum is socially and historically located and culturally determined. It does not develop in a vacuum rather it proceeds on the basis of beliefs seldom made explicit about how people learn, what human beings should be like and what society is” (Hooper, R. ,1971).

In Pakistan, citizenship education is integrated with social studies. The aims, concepts, content, activities, learning outcomes and evaluation are provided in the national curriculum for social studies. This cited research study is based on three foundational contexts (a) The Political Context, (b) The Social, Economic and Cultural Context, (c) The Educational Context.

This study will assess the current state of citizenship education in Pakistan in social studies curriculum. For this purpose curriculum of social studies will be analyzed. This research study will be based on two phases: first an analysis of teaching and learning practices in citizenship education and then a survey to seeking whether the curriculum and textbook of social studies are promoting citizenship education, or not. This study also investigates whether Pakistani students acquire functional knowledge and learn some important values in schools which are part of citizenship education that is required for effective participation in democratic social life. The study will finally suggest what type of curricula and teacher education program should be included to prepare students to become more informed, responsible and participatory citizen of Pakistan.

The purpose of this study is that youth of Pakistan can protect their citizenship rights by only learning about them, by recognizing their power knowing their responsibilities, by overcoming their feelings of fear, and by mobilizing adequate support for their struggles. Therefore this present study will be conducted to find out whether the state and educational ministry have given citizenship education any importance or not and in social studies curriculum does it hold due importance which it deserves or not. According to founder of Pakistan,

“There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend on the type of education we give to our children and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan” Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah All Pakistan Education Conference November 30 December 02, 1947 Karachi.

The Aim of the Present study is to improve citizenship education in Pakistani schools through the( a) analysis of curriculum of social studies text book; (b) to develop a cadre of teachers to educate students for citizenship; (c) a formulation of a citizenship education program for schools in Pakistan.

The researcher has observed that Textbooks, particularly at school level, serve as the basic source of information for students besides being the foremost expression of the objectives desired by the curriculum. They constitute the necessary institutional cohesiveness, and continuity that allows an educational system to act as a national social process to shape children’s’ minds (Hasanain & Nayyer, 1997). An analysis of the content materials shows that the textbooks used in public schools contain material that is impacted by political manipulations and according to Yvette (2000) none of the subject disciplines has been subjected to such torturous stretching and contracting as the field of Social Studies because it is used to create civic identity and inculcate patriotism. This study goes further by looking at three Citizenship and an attainment targets which based on three following elements:

Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens;

Developing skills of enquiry and approach;

Developing skills of participation and responsible action.

This study intends to develop to identify effective citizenship education, on the model presented by Crick. A separate Advisory Group on Citizenship Education and Training was set up in England 1999, in order to pursue this recommendation, which was chaired by Bernard Crick (FEFC, 2000). For This Present Study framework and recommendations for citizenship education are the following:

Citizen and civic Sensibility

Political awareness and functional political literacy

Cultural moral and social development

Socio-economic development

Crick, B. (1998)

As a community member and citizen of Pakistan, it is also painfully obvious to witness a general rise of social problems and ethnic strife along with political instability, official corruption in government, and a breakdown of law and order.

Therefore the requirement of present time in Pakistan is to develop functional curriculum, only then Pakistani students can acquire functional knowledge and learn about important values in schools which are part of citizenship education that is required for effective participation in democratic social life. The researcher holds the opinion that effective curricula and teacher education program should be included to prepare students to become more informed, responsible and participatory citizen of Pakistan.

Therefore in this study social studies curriculum is analyzed. This study is designed by examining three key aspects:

Social studies Curriculum standards

Out line aims, concepts and text book structure

Analysis of textbook contents and exercises with the help of frame work

The researcher has firm belief that Pakistan holds a significantly position at international level therefore it is extremely important that Pakistanis conceive themselves as peaceful effective citizens. As a matter of fact, in Pakistan promotion of religion in negative aspect and the reduction of Pakistan national philosophy of heroes and political leaders is the main cause of negative image of Pakistan. Furthermore different religious personalities and parties and leaders are the symbols those are associated with religion and the military and the increasingly negative image (violent, intolerant, extremist) of Pakistan internationally has given rise to a negative concept of Pakistani citizens. The result is that most Pakistanis have a negative self-image, low esteem and confidence, a growing feeling of despondency and lack of agency among themselves. Therefore civic or citizenship education curriculum is needed, which can prepare more hopeful, peace loving and active citizenry

1.3 Statement of the problem

The study aims to investigate the current state of citizenship education in Pakistan. For this purpose the researcher examined the curriculum of social studies of (8th grade) at elementary level in Pakistan. Since its independence in 1947 Pakistan has had a distinct political transition often every ten years. With each political transition a new education policy was developed. Each aimed to prepare ‘good citizens’ but instead, reproduced the government’s ideology and its conception of citizenship and citizenship education. Therefore Pakistan needs an extensive citizen-centric details plan and the Parliamentary Panel on Constitutional Changes should increase the opportunity of content 19 to consist of “citizens’ right to know”. Schools and professional training institutes should also include the idea of entry to details and effective citizenship in their curricula. Pakistani students acquire knowledge and learn some important values in schools, but they do not learn the skills (problem solving, decision-making) and values (civic mindedness, critical consciousness) required for effective participation in democratic life.

1.4 Purpose of the Research

In present era, government is seriously concerned and encouraged to put citizen and citizenship education in proper place in curriculum of social studies. It is hoped that these steps can give better chance of sustaining democracy and civic sensibility among people of Pakistan. The real Citizenship concept requires informed citizens willing to participate in the democratic and development processes at the local, national and global levels. The purpose of this type of education is to prepare informed and participatory citizens. Citizenship education is required for the citizens to acquire desire knowledge, skills and dispositions as well as to have opportunities for civic engagement through different activities to participate in political processes and to engage in community service.

In Pakistan social studies curriculum from grade I-VII there is a Content related with citizenship education. It is therefore important that curriculum analysis and assessment regarding citizenship education in Pakistan must be undertaken to identify what each content and grade is doing to promote citizenship education, as well as to identify their successes, obstacles and future needs or demands . It is accepted that Findings of the research will facilitate in identification of citizenship education content for the development of a comprehensive citizenship education for Pakistan.

1.5 Objectives of the study

To highlight the role of social studies (as compulsory subject) to promote active and functional citizenship

Examine the textbook of social studies for 8th grade with special reference to citizenship education at elementary level

Investigate the awareness in students of 8th grade regarding citizenship education

Investigate the teachers’ knowledge and climate of schools regarding citizenship education in Pakistan

Suggest measure for planning and implementation of text book of social studies and skills learning experiences in citizenship education in schools, community and settings

To develop a model for understanding and improvement of school climate educating for active citizenship at elementary level

1.6 Research Questions

This study will be directed by the following questions:

To what extent does the Social Studies textbook in Pakistan at elementary level teach values that promote appropriate qualities to enhance good and active citizenship?

To what extent is the Social Studies curriculum successful in teaching values for good and active citizenship?

How can changes or improvements to the Social Studies curriculum be made to include values that can further enhance good and active citizenship?

1.7 Hypotheses OF The study

Ho1 There is no significant awareness in teachers regarding textbook development in Pakistan.

Ho2 There is no significant status of social studies text book of 8th grade and school climate for learning and teaching in Pakistan.

Ho3 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education for recognition of the civic purpose of education in school.

Ho4 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education for meaningful learning about civic related knowledge in school.

Ho5 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding cooperation and collaboration in school of Pakistan.

Ho6 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education and for trust and positive interaction

Ho7 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding students input and participation skills.

Ho8 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding student’s thoughtful and respectful dialogue about issues of citizenship education in school.

Ho9 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate for student’s regarding engagement in learning about community help in school.

Ho10 There is no significant level of awareness regarding national identity and concept of citizen in students of grade VIII.

Ho11 There is no significant level of awareness regarding civic sensibility in students of grade VIII

Ho12 There is no significant level of awareness regarding political literacy and sensibility in students of grade VIII.

Ho13 There is no significant level of awareness regarding global and social sensitization in students of grade VIII

Ho14 There is no significant level of awareness regarding cultural and moral education in students of grade VIII

Ho15 There is no significant relationship between teacher academic qualification and awareness on citizenship education.

Ho16 There is no significant relationship between teacher professional qualification and awareness on citizenship education

Ho17 There is no significant relationship between teacher age and awareness on citizenship education

Ho18 There is no significant relationship between work experience of teacher and awareness on citizenship education

Ho19 There is no significant difference of awareness between male and female regarding citizenship education

Ho20 There is no significant difference of awareness between boys and girls regarding citizenship education

Ho21 There is no significant relationship between father occupation and students awareness on citizenship education.

Ho22 There is no significant relationship between mother occupation and students awareness on citizenship education.

Ho23 There is no significant difference between locality and students awareness on citizenship education.

Ho24 There is no significant difference between birth (native) city and students awareness on citizenship education.

1.8 Significance of the study

The purpose of present research study is to determine the role of citizenship education in social studies textbook of (8th class) in promoting functional and active citizenship in Pakistan. This study aims to provide relevant information of citizenship education and civic sensibility after the review of social studies textbook of grade 8th. Civic sensibility is composed of three layers: knowledge, skills and disposition. Civic knowledge is concerned with the context of what citizens ought to know. The second essential component is civic skills which allow citizens to think critically and to act rationally. Finally, civic disposition is a quality which brings a sense of moral responsibility, self discipline, respect for human dignity and civility.

The researcher believes that if social studies textbook is properly developed it can prepare knowledgeable, tolerant, democratic, and active citizens who can function efficiently in Pakistan and in today global world. In essence, citizenship education is about nation-building therefore Pakistani national social studies curriculum should provide guidelines to citizenship education of modern age. And through the model of citizenship education we can address the educational needs of children growing up in a complex global environment.

1.9 Delimitation of the study

This study is delimited in number of ways

This study is delimitated to capital city

This study is delimitated to urban area of Islamabad

This study is delimitated to Federal Government model schools.

This study is delimitated to 8th grade students (boys / girls).

1.10 Methodology

It is a descriptive research. The format of study is based on two methods:

Content analysis

Survey method

In this present research study two approaches (1) qualitative and (2) quantitative

have been used.

Qualitative approach will be used for outline and textbook / content analysis

Quantitative approach will be used to conduct survey among students and teachers

In the first part of this research, qualitative approach will be used; to examine the content and exercises of social studies text book. With the help of framework for textbook analysis) out line of textbook of grade 8th will analyze, it was given by the ministry of education. Therefore content analysis and document analysis is used as a method of research. According to L.R.Gay (2007) Qualitative research is used to gain understanding into individuals behaviour, actions, value systems, concerns, inspirations, ambitions, lifestyle or way of life. It’s used to inform business choices, policy development, interaction and research. Focus groups, in-depth discussions, content research, ethnography, assessment and semiotics are among the many official techniques that are used, but qualitative research also includes the research of any unstructured material, including reviews from customers forms, reports or media segments.

According to L.R. Gay (2007) Material research is a research tool used to determine the use of certain terms or ideas within sms messages or sets of sms messages. Scientists evaluate and evaluate the existence, definitions and relationships of such terms and ideas, then make implications about the messages within the sms messages, the writer(s), the viewers, and even the culture and time of which these are a part. Texts can be described generally as books, book sections, articles, discussions, conversations, paper statements and articles, traditional records, presentations, conversations, advertising, cinema, casual discussion, or really any incident of communicative language. To conduct a content research on any such written text, the writing is known as or broken down, into controllable groups on a variety of levels–word, term sense, phrase, phrase, or theme–and then analyzed using one of content analysis’ basic methods: conceptual research or relational research (Colorado State University. 1993-2011 )

In the second part quantitative approach has been used. Survey method has been adopted to explore the school climate and teacher’s student understanding about knowledge regarding the subject matter of social studies and citizenship education, and how this influences their classroom practice. This study will analyze the social studies text book and explores teachers understanding and student knowledge regarding the subject matter of social studies and citizenship education, and how this influences their classroom practice. Data has been collected from teachers and students through questionnaires. The research has been conducted in the capital city of (Islamabad) Pakistan, in federal public schools, of boys and girls in urban area.

Operational Definitions

The definitions provided below explain the meanings of words or concepts used in this study.

Citizen

A person recognized within a community of people or constituent member of society.

Citizenship

The recognition conferred on people as citizens based on sets of characteristics of being a citizen and by derivation.

Citizenship Education

The contribution of education for the development of characteristics of being a citizen

Good citizenship

Citizens that have the ability to solve social problems and to improve society show good character display honesty, respect, and responsibility; and be law-abiding members of a society.

e. Active citizenship

Citizens who actively participate in the affairs of the society improve and develop the people’s quality of life.

f. Democratic citizenship

Citizens who understand their rights and freedom and others rights and freedom as well.

g. Moral values

Code of conduct that is acceptable for the society. This includes cultural and church virtues and values such as honesty, faithfulness, care, responsibility (Grossman, 2008).

Research Design

The Research has five chapters. The chapters break down is following.

The first chapter will be an introduction on theme of the study “Citizenship Education. The researcher has briefly defined and explains this term and its concept, how it is important for young generation, and how we can inculcate this concept with the help of education. Therefore analysis of social studies curriculum of 8th grade in Pakistan is conducted with special reference to citizenship education.

The second chapter deals with the Review of related Literature. It will look at the previous and current status of citizenship education. Therefore this chapter will outlines and conceptualizes the key theme of the study, as mentioned in the introductory chapter the study concern itself with role of social studies textbook regarding citizenship education in Pakistan. This chapter will attempt to give the definition of citizenship education and why it is necessary in a country like Pakistan. Furthermore it will introduce local and global perspective on citizenship education.

The third chapter deals with Methodology. It is a descriptive research. The research belong to the category of social sciences hence, in this present research study two approaches(1) qualitative and (2) quantitative will be used,. The format of present study is based on two methods that is Content analysis and survey based on questionnaires.

(a) Qualitative approach will be used for content analysis of textbook.

(b) Quantitative approach will be used for survey from students and teachers.

Furthermore Qualitative research is used to obtain understanding into individuals behaviour, actions, value systems, issues, inspirations, ambitions, lifestyle or lifestyles. So this approach will also be used.

The fourth chapter will deal with analyses of data, collected through the distribution of questionnaires in school. The data will be critically evaluated, with the help of citizenship education.

The fifth chapter will give conclusions drawn from the study. Based on these the researcher will base her finding and give recommendations for further research in this area.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATURE

Social-Studies and Citizenship Education

This chapter highlights key concept of the study, as it is mentioned in the first introductory chapter. The study is concerned itself with the role of social studies curriculum regarding citizenship education in Pakistan. This chapter conceptualized the key points of citizenship education in a country like Pakistan; moreover it will give introduction about local global perspective of citizenship education. Furthermore, it describes the importance of civic education in social studies curriculum. Civic competence is highly promoted in social sciences and humanities. Therefore , Social studies provides an organized and coordinated study to students in schools, by creating sort of disciplines as law philosophy , political science, psychology, religion sociology along with appropriate ingredients from humanities , mathematics and natural sciences. The primary objective of social study is to create awareness among young generation about their own rights and duties and to make reasoned and informed decision for the public welfare being citizen of a democratic society in this interdependent world.

2.1 Concept of Education

Dewey (Ryan 1998 p. 397) was of the view that education was something that gi